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The thyroid is a tiny gland with huge importance, and its currently receiving a lot of attention among and health and nutrition experts across the world. And rightfully so—it’s estimated that nearly 20 million Americans suffer from some type of thyroid disorder. But most people don’t even know where the thyroid gland is, let alone what it does. So let’s start with the basics. Then, we’ll move on to how the health and function of this highly important gland can be enhanced through natural means.

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the lower front part of your neck. It’s one of several glands that comprise the endocrine system, and it secretes hormones responsible for literally every cell, tissue, and organ in the body.[1]

But a lot can go wrong with this gland, causing various thyroid-related problems throughout the body. For instance, some people develop hypothyroidism, a condition in which their thyroid does not secrete enough hormones—leading to extreme fatigue, depression, forgetfulness, and weight gain. Some people develop the opposite problem, hyperthyroidism, in which the thyroid secretes too many hormones. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include irritability, nervousness, muscle weakness, vision problems, and sleep loss. It’s also possible to develop thyroiditis (thyroid swelling), a goiter (an enlarged gland), nodules (gland lumps) or thyroid cancer.[2]

These thyroid-related problems can be really damaging to a person’s overall health.

Depending on the specific condition, traditional treatments for thyroid problems include medication, surgery, and radioiodine therapy. In some cases, a person has to take medication throughout their life to keep a thyroid problem under control. Of course, the average person doesn’t want to be on medication forever—which is one reason so many people are pursuing natural alternatives to improve the health of their thyroid gland.

One of those remedies is red and near infrared light therapy—otherwise known as photobiomodulation (PBM). Based on recent research, PBM is showing impressive results as a safe, effective way to enhance thyroid function.

Clinical Research on Light Therapy Shows Positive Results for Thyroid Problems

There is strong research supporting the benefits light therapy can have on different types of thyroid problems. In one clinical study printed in the May 2013 issue of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, researchers found that near infrared light therapy helped improve the overall thyroid health of participants with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

The study reported improvements in various markers—most impressively, the participants' need for levothyroxine treatment declined, and even went away in some cases. Additionally, 47 percent of participants no longer needed levothyroxine during the entire nine-month follow-up after light therapy. Since so many people suffering from thyroid problems are stuck on levothyroxine treatment for their entire lives, this was a very exciting result! Study participants also showed a decline in levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb), which are antibodies indicating an autoimmune problem—further demonstrating the benefits of near infrared light therapy.[3]

There are many other studies and dissertations that report the positive effects light therapy can have on thyroid health. For example, a 2003 dissertation by Viktor Dubovik studied people with postsurgical hypothyroidism and found that light therapy reduced the need for medication by 50 to 75 percent. And a 2010 Russian dissertation showed that light therapy helped 38 percent of the participants reduce their hypothyroidism medication dose, with 17 percent being able to stop taking the medication altogether.[4]

Conclusion: Study Results Showcase Light Therapy as an Effective Treatment for Thyroid Problems

Now you know a little bit more about the various clinical studies that suggest how light therapy can be used to safely improve the overall health of the thyroid gland—showing promise as an effective and safe alternative to traditional thyroid treatments, including medication and surgery.

But as we’ve noted in past articles, consistency is critical when using red or near infrared light therapy. It’s imperative to use a device that delivers the right wavelengths along with professional-grade power. Stay away from products that are severely underpowered and require long treatment times of 15 minutes or more.

Instead, choose something like the Joovv Light, which can treat your entire body in the comfort of your own home. And if you're feeling skeptical, take advantage of our no-hassle, 60-day trial and discover how our light therapy devices can help you meet your health goals. You may be surprised by the ways this safe, alternative treatment can help enhance the overall health of your thyroid gland—and the rest of your body!

References:

[1] American Thyroid Association. Thyroid.org. Accessed February 2018.

[2] Mayo Clinic staff. Mayoclinic.org. Accessed February 2018.

[3] Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, et al. Low-level laser in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism induced by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. May 2013; 28(3): 743-53.

[4] Heiskanen V. Hypothyroidism: Could it be treated with light? Valtsus. Accessed February 2018.

Most people have heard of arthritis or have a family member that’s dealt with its debilitating effects. But few people understand the specifics of this disease, such as the different forms it can take, the signs and symptoms, and the many ways to treat or manage it.

You might be familiar with the two main types of arthritis, which include osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. But arthritis and related joint problems can present in over 100 different ways, all of which affect over 50 million adults. Arthritis is actually America’s top reason for disability, according to the Arthritis Foundation.[1]

The main difference between the various types of arthritis is the way in which the condition starts, but most forms of arthritis lead to similar symptoms—namely joints that are painful, swollen, and stiff. These symptoms are more severe for some people than others, and they can linger for long periods of time or flare up in random, temporary spurts. But eventually, arthritis will reduce a person’s overall level of joint and body movement, which can negatively impact their quality of life.

Some forms of arthritis can go into remission if the person keeps up with medical treatments and lifestyle recommendations. However, traditional medicine offers no cure for arthritis. The best hope is usually to manage the disease via treatments like medication and surgery. In some cases, doctors may also recommend natural treatments such as vitamins, minerals and herbs, massage, electrical stimulation, and hot and cold therapy.

But most people—even those experimenting with alternative treatments for arthritis—may not be aware that red and near infrared light therapy—also called photobiomodulation, or PBM—has been studied extensively and found to be effective for improving multiple forms of arthritis in various parts of the body. In fact, according to these studies, PBM even shows promise in physically changing the condition of the joints—for the better!

Vast Amount of Clinical Research Shows Benefits of Light Therapy for Arthritis and Overall Joint Health

Light therapy has been studied extensively since the early 90’s, when it was first introduced as an alternative treatment method for people with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. And even though red and near infrared light therapy still isn't considered a standard treatment option for arthritis, countless clinical studies have supported its use for this disease, and researchers have recommended it as an effective form of treatment.

PBM works by targeting the cellular origins of arthritis. It helps this disease the same way it helps other conditions—cells absorb wavelengths in the red and near infrared range and convert that light into cellular energy, which enables them to function at a higher capacity. In other posts, we cover the mechanism of action of light therapy in much greater detail. Here, we’ll take a closer look at the published clinical literature that supports how PBM reduces the symptoms of arthritis, including pain, swelling, and stiffness.

In 2000, a systematic review in The Journal of Rheumatology set out to see just how effective light therapy could be for arthritis. This review found significant results across thirteen randomized controlled trials:[2]

• The best results were demonstrated in people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, with light therapy reducing participants’ pain by 70 percent compared to the placebo.
• Also, light therapy reduced morning stiffness in participants by 27.5 minutes, and significantly increased hand flexibility.
• The researchers concluded that PBM should be considered for the relief of pain and morning stiffness, especially since it has few side effects.

PBM has also been shown to improve other symptoms of arthritis, as documented in a 2012 study in Clinical Rehabilitation. Participants in this study who received light therapy along with exercise showed significant improvements for many variables—including pain, functionality, and range of motion, when compared to placebo treatment.[3]

Other studies support the use of PBM for improved joint health. A systematic review in Lasers in Medical Science found that light therapy plus ultrasound showed strong results for treating hand osteoarthritis in women, with a major decline in pain. This meta-analysis also documented extensive, positive results for the use of light therapy for arthritis in the knees, neck, back, jaw, and other areas.[4]

And it turns out that PBM can improve general joint problems not related to arthritis. A 2003 systematic review in The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy looked at 11 clinical trials of light therapy for chronic joint disorders in the knee. Across all of these studies, light therapy reduced pain while improving overall joint function.[5]

Conclusion: Overwhelming Clinical Evidence Supports Light Therapy as an Effective Treatment for Arthritis and Joint Pain

As you can see, there’s strong evidence supporting the use of light therapy at red and near infrared wavelengths for reducing symptoms of arthritis and improving overall joint health. The aforementioned studies are just a sample of the wide body of clinical research that documents positive results when using light therapy for joint pain and relief from arthritis.

But as noted before, it’s imperative to use a light therapy device that delivers the right wavelengths with optimal power levels. The Joovv Light was specifically designed to provide light in the red and near infrared wavelength range with professional-grade power output. If you’re in the market for a light therapy device, we’re confident the Joovv Light is the right choice to help you meet your health goals!

References:

[1] What Is Arthritis? Arthritis Foundation.

[2] Brosseau L, Welch V, et al. Low level laser therapy for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis. The Journal of Rheumatology. Aug 2000; 27(8): 1961-9.

[3] Alfredo PP, Bjordal JM, et al. Efficacy of low level laser therapy associated with exercises in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind study. Clinical Rehabilitation. Jun 2012; 26(6): 523-33.

[4] Paolillo AR, Paolillo FR, et al. Synergic effects of ultrasound and laser on the pain relief in women with hand osteoarthritis. Lasers in Medical Science. Jan 2015; 30(1): 279-86.

[5] Bjordal JM, Couppe C, et al. A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders. The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 2003; 49(2): 107-16.

What makes a man, a man? That’s a complicated question. But from a purely biological perspective, the answer is simple: the hormone called testosterone. Men generally produce far more testosterone than women. It’s responsible for many of the qualities we consider “manly”—deeper voices, hairy chests, muscular frames, etc.

Unfortunately, around age 30, testosterone levels start to drop. This is normal, but it can bring a lot of challenges to a man’s life—things like reduced sexual function, decreased energy, a decline in muscle, and an increase in fat.[1] To make matters worse, testosterone is adversely affected by a host of common challenges that affect nearly all men today, such as poor nutrition, stress, and lack of sleep—and that’s just to name a few. These factors combine to produce dramatically decreased testosterone levels for a lot of men.

Doctors often suggest supplementation or medication to help with the difficulties of low testosterone or to treat testosterone abnormalities. But these traditional solutions may lead to unwanted side effects. That’s why so many people are after a more natural option. And it turns out that red and near infrared light therapy shows promise for increasing testosterone in a safe and efficacious way.

Studies Support the Use of Red and Near-Infrared Light Therapy for Boosting Testosterone

To the surprise of most, exposing the torso or the testes to light has been shown to increase testosterone in men. In fact, studies related to the effect of light on the testes actually go back to the 1930s. In an initial study in 1939, it was found that men’s testosterone levels went up by 120 percent when the participants’ chests were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. Even more impressive, these testosterone levels went up by 200 percent with UV exposure to the genital area.[2] Even though most people want to limit their exposure to UV light because of its potential to cause cancer, this nearly 100-year-old study demonstrated the positive impact that natural light can have on testosterone production.

Today, new studies are demonstrating positive results from light therapy on testosterone levels. A 2013 study in Biomedical Research examined the effect of light therapy on testosterone production in rats. This study found that light therapy at 670 nanometers (nm) increased the serum testosterone levels, with no noted side effects. Due to their findings, the researchers stated that red light therapy could potentially work as an alternative treatment method to traditional testosterone treatments.[3]

The positive results hold up in human trials as well. A 2016 randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted by the University of Siena evaluated men with a low sexual desire. It found that using light therapy generated a testosterone increase that resulted in better sexual satisfaction.[4] Although this was a relatively small pilot study, it suggests light therapy can indeed lead to enhanced testosterone levels.

How Does Red and Near Infrared Light Therapy Improve Testosterone Levels

In other posts, we explained how the human body absorbs red and near infrared light, which encourages increased cellular chemical energy transportation—otherwise known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Just as improved function can be observed throughout various bodily processes, our friend Dr. Olli Sovijarvi—author of the Biohacker's Handbook—has stated that red and near infrared light wavelengths encourage the production of ATP in the Leydig cells that produce testosterone, enhancing their energy production and helping increase amounts of the hormone.[5]

Other theories exist about how light therapy boosts testosterone levels. Dr. Sovijarvi has also described a theory that light wavelengths stimulate photoreceptive proteins in the testes, resulting in higher testosterone production. In addition, researchers in the aforementioned 2016 University of Siena study suggested that the light therapy used could have blocked the brain’s pineal gland, which resulted in the creation of more testosterone.[4]

In a 2013 study in the Nepal Medical College Journal, researchers observed that the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are connected to the production of testosterone, were elevated in rats subjected to light for 70 days. The researchers suggested that these increased hormones may have encouraged elevated testosterone production.[6]

While there are multiple theories in terms of the mechanism of action, it’s pretty clear that light therapy does indeed lead to increased testosterone production!

Which Wavelengths of Light are Best for Increasing Testosterone?

Some people have reported potentially negative effects to testes when using light therapy. However, any detrimental ramifications are related to longer wavelengths that produce more heat, which isn't optimal for boosting testicular function. In fact, wavelengths above 1,000 nm produce much more radiant heat because water in the body absorbs more of these frequencies. This isn't an issue with red or near infrared wavelengths, which generate very little heat and have been proven in multiple clinical studies to boost sperm health.[3,6,7]

Conclusion: Red and Near Infrared Light Therapy Shows Promising Results for Increasing Testosterone Levels

Numerous studies have supported the idea that light therapy can increase levels of testosterone. In addition, red and near infrared light is considered safe for use–even when directed on the testicles. Nonetheless, a general rule of thumb is to avoid too much heat, which could have a detrimental effect on the testosterone-producing Leydig cells.

That’s why it’s imperative to use an LED light therapy device that delivers optimal power without producing heat. Efficient delivery of the right wavelengths with virtually no heat–that’s the ideal combination, and it’s a critical design element that we’ve optimized in the Joovv Light. Check it out when you get a chance–we think you’ll be impressed!

References:

[1] The Healthline Editorial Team, Gotter A and Rogers G, MD. Low Testosterone in Men. Healthline. Jul 2016.

[2] Myerson, A. Influence of ultraviolet radiation on excretion of sex hormones in the male. Endocrinology. 1939;25:7-12.

[3] Ahn JC, Kim YH and Rhee CK. The effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the testis in elevating serum testosterone level in rats. Biomedical Research. 2013; 24(1):28-32.

[4] Fagiolini A et al. Lack of interest in sex successfully treated by exposure to bright light. European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Sept 2016.

[5] Sovijarvi O. Dr. Olli Sovijarvi on Increasing Testosterone by Shining Light on Your Testicles. Biohacker Summit Blog. Oct 2016.

[6] Biswas NM, Biswas R, et al. Effect of continuous light on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in rats: Possible involvement of alpha 2u-globulin. Nepal Med Coll J. 2013;15(1):62-64.

[7] Salman Yazdi, R., Bakhshi, S., Jannat Alipoor, F. et al. Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. (2014) 29: 97.

The ever-increasing demand for better-looking skin is at an all-time high. In fact, the number of spa visits per year across the globe has surpassed the 200 million mark. And it’s estimated the “beauty and anti-aging” market is worth nearly 100 billion dollars. Pretty amazing, right? It’s pretty clear that nearly everyone is after a great complexion.

But, the there’s more to our skin than just aesthetics. In fact, skin is the largest organ of your body and is incredibly important. It protects your body from environmental influences, helps control your body’s water levels, and provides other key functions. But unfortunately, age takes its toll on all of us, including our skin. In addition to natural aging, which is accentuated by outside factors, other skin-related problems can ensue - things like infections, cancer, scars, and other various conditions from acne to psoriasis.[1]

You’ve undoubtedly experienced some type of skin issue during your lifetime. And as you probably know, skin conditions can be painful, uncomfortable, and bad for self-esteem. It's quite common to seek a medical treatment that will relieve the problem. Within traditional medicine, the therapeutic options depend on the type of skin problem you're trying to address. In most cases, in order to improve skin conditions and signs of aging, a practitioner will use a wide range of topical treatments and procedures, such as microdermabrasion or chemical peels. And just like other health issues, many people suffering from uncomfortable skin problems also turn to natural remedies to find relief. These include essential oils, salt baths, herbal teas, supplements, and compresses.

But another alternative option - red and near infrared light therapy - has been growing in popularity within the aesthetics field. This treatment has been extensively studied for improving the skin and has become a prominent treatment within the dermatology arena. Light therapy is an effective treatment that can help a wide variety of skin conditions and is backed by a robust amount of clinical evidence. While many traditional skin treatments provide temporary relief, these studies have demonstrated real, lasting skin changes resulting from light therapy.

A Wealth of Clinical Research Finds Significant Skin Improvements From Light Therapy

You may have heard that light damages the skin. This is definitely true with UV light. But red and near infrared light therapy, on the other hand, can actually change your skin in positive ways. Research shows that light therapy can both benefit the look of skin and heal the underlying issue that is causing the condition. When red and near infrared light is absorbed by the skin, it stimulates new skin cells to grow in a healthier way, provides protection against damage, and helps heal a variety of skin problems.[2] If you want to go deeper, you can read more about the mechanism of action at a cellular level in a previous article we published.

Not surprisingly, there’s a robust amount of clinical research that has demonstrated specific benefits of light therapy related to the skin. An extensive meta analysis in a 2013 issue of Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery evaluated many ways in which light therapy can be used for the skin, some of which are outlined in the proceeding paragraphs.[2]

Specific to anti-aging, this meta-analysis discussed numerous studies showing that LED light therapy can actually reduce and counteract signs of aging in the skin. Red and near infrared light has been shown to boost collagen, smooth wrinkles, enhance tone, as well as a host of other benefits. Also of note, while light therapy boosted positive skin results, it also reduced an enzyme that contributes to skin damage.

A 2014 controlled trial in Photomedicine and Laser Surgery also backed up the use of red and near infrared light therapy to treat skin aging. The treatment boosted collagen and participants experienced a better look and feel in their skin, which was supported by photographs. Overall, researchers found light therapy to be safe and effective.[3]

Regarding acne, the same 2013 meta-analysis we mentioned before highlighted studies finding red and near infrared light to be effective for the treatment of acne. Of note, it explained that red light impacts sebum production, which contributes to acne, in addition to the control of cytokines, which impacts skin inflammation.[3]

The meta-analysis also showed that light therapy resolved psoriasis in patients that were not helped by traditional treatments, improved pigmentation in patients with vitiligo disorder, and reduced episode of herpes. It also boosted healing and improved scars and burns. Overall, the authors of the meta-analysis noted that light therapy could be used for many skin concerns because of its wide range of positive results. It was particularly effective for healing and skin regeneration, as well as reducing inflammation and cellular necrosis.

The Consensus is Clear: Numerous Clinical Studies Provide Solid Evidence that Light Therapy is an Effective Skin Treatment

An abundance of clinical studies have demonstrated that red and near infrared light therapy benefits the skin while reducing potential issues. But, it’s essential to use the right wavelengths within the red and near infrared spectrum, along with optimal power output. A device like the Joovv Light will allow for short and effective treatment times in the comfort of your own home. Skin rejuvenation has never been easier!

Sources:

[1] Elizabeth H. Page. Structure and Function of the Skin. Merck Manual.

[2] Avci P, Gupta A, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Mar 2013; 32(1): 41-52.

[3] Wunsch A and Matuschka K. A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. Feb 2014; 32(2): 93-100.

Losing weight and extra fat is a common health goal for almost everyone. For some, all it takes is a clean diet and adequate exercise. But for others, it's not that simple. Often times, there are deeper health issues that prevent the body’s metabolic rate from working properly. Stress, for example, has a proven negative effect on metabolism.[1]

That’s why working out and dieting becomes a frustrating, never-ending cycle for lots of people. It’s easy to blame yourself when you’re not seeing the results you’d like. Does that sound familiar? If so, don’t lose hope! There's a new tool that may help your body begin to process fat the way it should.

Just as red and near infrared light is demonstrating promise for a host of health issues, it has shown surprisingly effective results for fat loss as well. Unlike many solutions promoted for weight-loss, such as medications and surgery, red and near infrared light therapy provide a safe, natural and non-invasive option to becoming healthier and more fit.

How Does Light Therapy Work to Reduce Fat?

In a previous article, we discussed how red and near infrared light impacts the human body in a unique way. Our bodies absorb light energy—especially at certain wavelengths —and our cells respond by performing their day-to-day functions at an improved level. Not only does this help with things like skin health and muscle recovery, but it also plays a role in the body’s ability to process fat.

It has been well documented that red light at certain wavelengths stimulates mitochondrial and cellular energy (called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP) production. This happens as part of the cellular respiration process in which cells break down and convert stored energy—releasing waste products along the way.

The full story of exactly how red light therapy provides so many amazing benefits is a little complicated, and deserves its own post—which you’ll find right here. But in short, most researchers agree that light therapy affects adipocytes, which are cells that store fat, causing the lipids to disperse. In other words, light therapy helps the body wash away fat cells.[1]

Light therapy may work in other ways that affect fat and weight loss. For instance, a 2012 study in the International Journal of Endocrinology showed that light can affect hunger, which could help prevent the buildup of extra fat before it even begins. This study found that red light helped control levels of the hunger-related hormones leptin and ghrelin in sleep-deprived participants.[3]

What Does Other Research Say About Light Therapy and Fat Loss?

Besides the obvious health concerns related to obesity and excess fat, one of the primary motivating factors for people trying to lose weight has more to do with what they see in the mirror, not what they read on the scale. The concept of “body contouring” has become a commonly used term to market all sorts of therapies and treatments. Unfortunately, a lot of these either don’t work, or they produce undesirable side effects. Red light therapy, on the other hand, has proven itself be extremely effective when it comes to physically changing the way your body looks.

Take a look at the highlights of these clinical studies:

• A study in the Journal of Obesity Surgery researched red light therapy for body contouring. This 2011 double-blind, randomized study performed light therapy at 635-680 nanometers (nm) on participants for four weeks and recorded effects on the waistline. At the end of study, participants had achieved a statistically significant reduction in waistline girth.[4]

• In a similar study published in Lasers in Surgery Medicine, participants who received light therapy showed a significant reduction in overall circumference, including each part of the body. Researchers concluded that light therapy can cut down on the circumference of the specific areas that are treated.[5]

• A 2013 study in the same journal also found benefits from red light therapy at 635 nm for contouring the hips, thighs, and waist. At the end of the trial, researchers found a mean loss of 2.99 inches in overall body size compared to the starting point. Separately, the thigh, waist, and hip areas all showed a reduction too. Researchers concluded that red light therapy at this level and wavelength was safe and clinically effective (Figure A).[6]

Figure A: Comparison of inches lost between Test Group and Placebo Group.

Benefits of In-Home Light Therapy for Weight Loss

A major benefit of red and near infrared light therapy is that it can be performed at home—instead of going to a spa or medical clinic for expensive contouring and fat loss procedures that can lead to unwanted side effects. Because consistency is critical when it comes to light therapy, it’s extremely beneficial to have a device available at home versus the expense and inconvenience of undergoing multiple sessions at a health facility.

But as noted before, wavelength and intensity are incredibly important when it comes to light therapy. Make sure you choose a device that delivers red light with the correct wavelength with an optimal amount of power.

Conclusion: The Data Shows That Red Light Therapy Truly Does Enhance Weight and Fat Loss

Overall, red light therapy has shown positive results for fat loss and body contouring across several different clinical studies. This type of therapy offers a safe, non-invasive alternative for helping people improve their looks and their overall health. It’s time to add weight and fat loss to the long list of light therapy benefits!

References:

[1] Peterson P.S., Lei X, Wolf RM. CTRP7 deletion attenuates obesity-linked glucose intolerance, adipose tissue inflammation, and hepatic stress. American Journal of Physiology. Feb 2017;10:1152.

[2] Avci P, Nyame TT, Gupta GK, et al. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Fat Layer Reduction: A Comprehensive Review. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Aug 2013;45(6):349-357.

[3] Figueiro MG, Plitnick B, and Rea MS. Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012.

[4] Caruso-Davis MK, Guillot TS, Podichetty VK, Mashtalir N, Dhurandhar NV, Dubuisson O, Yu Y. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction. Obes Surg. 2011. Jun;21(6):722-9.

[5] Jackson RF, Dedo DD, Roche GC, et al. Low-level laser therapy as a non-invasive approach for body contouring: a randomized, controlled study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Dec 2009;41(10):99-809.

[6] McRae E and Boris J. Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Jan 2013;45(1):1-7.

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